Monkeypox is a disease caused by the monkeypox virus. It is similar to smallpox, but usually less severe. Monkeypox is contagious and can infect humans and animals. The disease gets its name from the fact that it was first found in monkeys in 1958. Monkeypox can be spread from animals to humans, or from person to person. The virus that causes monkeypox can mutate and this may make it more difficult to control outbreaks in the future. Monkeypox is most commonly spread through physical contact with contaminated items or close contact with infected people or animals. The transmission rate of monkeypox is thought to be higher than that of smallpox. Monkeypox typically starts with a rash that develops into sores. The sores eventually scab over and fall off. Monkeypox is a serious disease and public health officials are concerned about the potential for monkeypox to cause a global outbreak. There is no specific treatment for monkeypox and it can be fatal in some cases. Early diagnosis and isolation of infected individuals is important to help prevent the spread of the disease. Monkeypox is caused by a DNA virus that belongs to the Orthopoxvirus family. This family of viruses also includes the smallpox virus. Monkeypox was first identified in 1958 when an outbreak occurred among monkeys in Africa; however, the first human case was reported in 1970. Monkeypox outbreaks have been reported sporadically since then, mostly in Central and West Africa. In recent years, there have been several large Monkeypox outbreaks in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Monkeypox is a Zoonotic disease, which means it can be spread from animals to humans. 

What are the different ways Zoonotic disease could be transmitted from animals to humans?

There are several ways that Zoonotic diseases can be transmitted from animals to humans. The most common mode of transmission is through direct contact with an infected animal. This can occur when coming into contact with an animal’s saliva, blood, urine, mucous, or feces. Transmission can also occur by petting or touching animals, as well as through bites or scratches.

Indirect transmission of zoonotic diseases can occur when humans come into contact with objects or surfaces contaminated with germs from infected animals. This could include anything from bedding and clothing to toys and doorknobs.

Vector-borne transmission of zoonotic diseases occurs when insects or other creatures carry the disease-causing agent from an infected animal to a human. The most common vectors of zoonotic disease transmission are ticks, mosquitoes, fleas, and lice.

Foodborne transmission of zoonotic diseases can occur when contaminated food or water is ingested. Contaminated food could include anything from meat and eggs that have not been cooked properly to raw fruits and vegetables that have come into contact with feces from an infected animal.

Waterborne transmission typically occurs when people drink water that has been contaminated with the bacteria or viruses that cause Zoonotic disease. Transmission can also occur by coming into contact with contaminated water, such as swimming or bathing.

The Monkeypox virus is thought to circulate among several animal species, including rodents and primates. Humans can get Monkeypox through contact with infected animals, or through contact with contaminated material from an infected animal. Monkeypox can also be spread from person to person, although this is thought to happen less often than transmission from animals to humans.

What are some symptoms of monkeypox?

The monkeypox virus usually causes a milder illness in humans than smallpox, but monkeypox can be deadly as well. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Monkeypox symptoms usually start within 3 weeks of exposure to the virus. If someone has flu-like symptoms, they will usually develop a rash 1-4 days later.” The monkeypox virus is spread through contact with the blood or body fluids of infected animals, such as monkeys, and sometimes from human to human. The first signs of monkeypox are fever, headache, muscle aches, backache, swollen lymph nodes, chills, and exhaustion. A few days after the fever begins, the patient develops a rash that starts on the face and spreads to other parts of the body. The rash turns into fluid-filled blisters that later turn into scabs as they heal. The monkeypox virus may also cause rash around the genitals and/or sores inside the mouth or on the hands and feet. In more severe cases, monkeypox can cause pneumonia (lung infection) or encephalitis (inflammation of the brain).

There is no specific treatment for monkeypox, but patients can receive supportive care to help relieve symptoms. However, because monkeypox is usually a mild illness in humans, hospitalization and isolation are generally not necessary.

What can you do in case of infection?

In the event of infection, get vaccinated within 4 days of infection. There is no other treatment for monkeypox; therefore, the best thing to do would be to rest. Cover rashes with bandages to prevent any further spread. Make sure to avoid scratching or touching any of the rashes as it could infect other parts of the body. It is important to stay away from irritating the area with sensitive skin, such as shaving, and applying irritating products. It is best to keep the area clean and dry in order for the scabs to fall off and new skin to grow. While in recovery and while experiencing any symptoms, make sure to wear a mask around other people. The CDC states that you can take Ibuprofen or Acetaminophen in order to relieve any pain or in case of more severe pain or rash contact your healthcare provider for prescription medication. Additionally, certain methods can be used to soothe the rashes, such as topical benzocaine/lidocaine gel, oral antihistamines, topical creams, petroleum gel and warm baths using oatmeal or other bath products for irritated skin. 

Is there a Monkeypox vaccine? If so, who is eligible for the vaccine?

There are actually two vaccines available for monkeypox: JYNNEOS and ACAM2000. JYNNEOS is used to protect against smallpox and monkeypox. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “The JYNNEOS vaccine is approved for prevention of smallpox and monkeypox. It is the primary vaccine being used during this outbreak in the U.S. The ACAM2000 vaccine is an alternative to JYNNEOS. It is also approved to help protect against smallpox and monkeypox.” Monkeypox is a rare disease that is similar to smallpox. It is caused by a virus that is genetically similar to the one that causes smallpox; thus the smallpox vaccines are being used to protect against monkeypox. The monkeypox vaccine is currently only available in the United States through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The CDC recommends that people who are at risk for exposure to the virus receive the vaccine. This includes people who have been in close contact with someone who has been diagnosed with monkeypox, people who have had multiple sexual partners in an area with known monkeypox transmission, and people who have had sexual contact with someone from an area with known monkeypox transmission within the past two weeks. People who have been exposed to the virus but are not at risk for severe illness may still choose to receive the vaccine if they wish. Vaccination is also recommended for healthcare workers and laboratory personnel who may be exposed to the virus.

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Contact your healthcare provider or visit the CDC website if you have any further questions regarding Monkeypox. Visit our website for addition